避免心梗悲剧发生!这些识别方法和急救措施要牢记

fanting、wangjianping

2020年11月18日08:05  来源:人民网-科普中国
 

xinxueguanjibingyizhiyilaidoushiguominjiankangde“touhaoshashou”,woguomeinianyueyou350wanrensiyuxinxueguanjibing,zhanjuminjibingsiwanggoucheng40%yishang;qizhongmeinianxinfadexinjigengsibingliwei60wanli,jin3wanlihuodejishiguifandejiuzhi。jinnianlai,gezhongxinxueguanjibingchengxian“nianqinghua”qushi,ersanshisuidenianqingrenbeiquezhenweixinjigengsi,cusixianxiangpinfa,wuyichengweijiating、shehuideyanzhongfudanhedanyou。

心肌梗死的危险因素有哪些?

1、jiwangbingshi

xinjigengsiduofashengzaiguanzhuangdongmaizhouyangyinghuaxiazhaidejichushang,youyumouxieyouyinzhishiguanzhuangdongmaizhouyangbankuaipolie,xuezhongdexuexiaobanzaipoliedebankuaibiaomianjuji,xingchengxuekuai(xueshuan),turanzusaiguanzhuangdongmaiqiang,zhixinjiquexuehuaisi。ruguohuanzheyougaoxueya、gaoxuezhi、tangniaobingdengjibinghuizengjiaxinjigengsidejilv。

2、nianlingyuxingbie

xinjigengsidefabinglvsuizhenianlingdezengdaerbuduanzenggao,nianlingmeizengjia10sui,xinxueguanjibingfengxianhuizengjiayue1bei。lingwai,nanxingyunvxingxiangbi,fashengxinjigengsidejilvgao20%。

3、yichuanyinsu

2017nianmeiguoxinzangxiehuixinzangbingjinaozuzhongtongjibaogaoxianshi,12.2%dechengnianrendefumuhuotongbaozai50suizhiqianfashengxinjigengsihuoxinjiaotong。dangyijiqinshu(jifumuhuotongbao)zai55sui(nanxing)huo65sui(nvxing)zhiqianfashengguodongmaizhouyangyinghuaxingxinxueguanjibinghuosiyuxinxueguanjibingshi,fashengxinjigengsidegailvhuizengjia。

4、shenghuofangshi

buliangdeshenghuofangshihuidadazengjiaxinjigengsifashengdejilv。baokuoxiyan、bujiankangyinshi、quefayundong、feipang、jingshenyalida、guolao、qingxujidong、shuimianbuzu、daliangyinjiudeng。womenyechangnengkandao“36 suiqinghuabiyeit nanmatongshangcusi,siqianduimuqinshuo‘tailei’?“chunyuyishengzhangruitufaxinjigengsiqushi,shengqiancheng‘chishuibuhao,meitiandoujiaolv’”debaodao,zheixiexuelinlindeshijianyezaigaosuwomenjianlilianghaodeshenghuofangshidezhongyaoxing。

如何快速识别心肌梗死?

xinjigengsizuidianxingdebiaoxianshizaixiongguhouyouyazhayangtengtong,huanzhechangmiaoshuzheizhongtengtongweiyouyazhagan、xiongbufajin、xiongbuyapo(xiangdaxiangzuozaixiongkoushang)、yayi、xiongmen、shufugandeng,zheizhongtengtongbuhuisuizhehuodonghuozhetiweidegaibianergaibian,changchixuchaoguo10fenzhongbunenghuanjie,bingbanyoudahanlinli、huxijicu、exinoutu、falidengzhengzhuang。

xinjigengsihuanzhedetengtongyehuifangshedaoshentideqitabuwei,baokuoshangfu、jingjianbu、shangzhi、yanhou、xiaheheyachi,yixiexinjigengsihuanzhejiukenengzhishibiaoxianweichixuxingdeyateng、duzitong、sangzibushufu、jianbeitongdeng。youyijuhuashuo:“biziyixiaheduqiyishangdetengtongyoukenenglaiyuanyuxinzang”,xuyaoyinqizhuyi,yimiandanwuqiangjiushijian。

lingwai,yeyouyibufenhuanzhebiaoxianweifeidianxingzhengzhuang,baokuodanchunhuxikunnan、wuli、exinhe/huooutu、shangfutengtonghuobushi、fuxie、xinji、yunjuehuoxinbozhoutingdengzhengzhuang,zailaonianhuanzhe、tangniaobinghuanzhehenvxinghuanzhezhongrongyichuxian,bixuyaojingti。

panbiexinjigengsizuijiandandefangfajiushixindiantu,jiehexueyexuejianchajiugengjiawanshan。

突发心肌梗死怎么办?

duiyuxinjigengsihuanzhelaishuo,“shijianjiushixinji、shijianjiushishengming”,xueguanzusaihouxinjidayue30fenzhongzuoyoukaishihuaisi,zaizheiqijianyuezaodakaizusaidexueguan,cunhuodexinjijiuyueduo。duiyujixinjigengsidejijiu,changyou“huangjin1xiaoshi”deshuofa,ruguoxinjigengsinengzai1xiaoshineidedaoyouxiaoshijiu,kangfuhougenzhengchangrenyiyang,danruguozai1gebanxiaoshihouqiangjiu,xinjijiangchuxianhuaisi,qieshijianyuezhang,xinjihuaisiyueduo。henyihandeshi,youyibanhuanzheyinweizishenhuojiashudeyuanyin,ercuoguolejijiudeshiji。yinci,tigaodajiaduiyujixingxinjigengsidejijiuzhishishixiangdangyouzhongyaode。danghuaiyixinjigengsifazuodeshihou,yinggai:

1、hujiu:boda 120jijiudianhua,dianhuazhongshouxiangaozhizhunquedejiatingdizhi;baochidianhuatongchang;tongshigaozhiqinyou,ruguojiazhongmeiren,xuyaodakaifangmenfangbianjiuyuanrenyuanjinchu。

2、xiuxi:jiudipingtanghuozhaodaoheshidewozixiuxi,cishiyinghuanmanshenhuxi,jianshaohuodong,jinliangjiangdihaoyangliang,qianwanbuyaochangshigezhongbukaopudezijiufangfa。

3、shenyongyaowu:xinjigengsihexinjiaotongbuyiyang,xiaosuanganyoukeyizaixinjiaotongfazuoshihuanjiezhengzhuang,danruguoshixinjigengsifazuo,fuyongxiaosuanganyouhennanhuanjietengtong,ruguohuanzhexueyabenshenjiubijiaodi,hanfuxiaosuanganyouhoubingqingfanerhuijiazhong,bujianyimangmufuyongxiaosuanganyoupian。zaiquedingxueyabudishi,fuyongxiaosuanganyoukeyibangzhujianbieshifoushixinjigengsi,jiarufuyongsancidouwuxiao,henkenengshixinjigengsi。lingwai,zaixinzangbingfazuoqijianfuyongasipilinkeyibangzhufangzhixueyeningjie,congerjianshaoxinzangsunshang,danshiasipilinkeyiyuqitayaowuxianghuzuoyong,huiweihouxujibingzhiliaodailaikunnan,yincizheiliangzhongyaowudefuyongdouxushenzhong,zuihaozaidedaojijiuyishengjianyihoufuyong。

4、xiyang:ruyougongyangtiaojian,yinglijijiyuxiyang。

5、xinzanganya:rubingrenxinzangturantingzhitiaodong、huxixiaoshi、yishibuqing,yinglijijinxingxinwaianya(meifenzhong100~120ci,anyashendu5~6cm),zhizhiyishengdaolai。

突发心绞痛时硝酸甘油怎么用?

qianmian,womenjiutidao,xiaosuanganyouruguoshiyongfangfabuzhengque,yehuidaozhidixueya、yunjueshenzhizhirensiwang,xiamianzheixieqingkuangbujiunengshiyongxiaosuanganyou:

dixueyazhejinyong:xiaosuanganyouzaikuozhangguanzhuangdongmaixueguandetongshi,yehuikuozhangqitaxueguan,xueyadiyu90/60mmhgzhefuyong,kenenghuishixueyajiangdegengdi;

qingguangyan、luneiyazenggaohuanzhejinyong:xiaosuanganyounengshinaoyaheyanyashenggao,youqingguangyan、luneiyazenggaoshiyingjinyong;

bukeyuwanaike(sucheng“weige”)tongshifuyong:wanaikehuikuozhangyinjinghaimiantixueguan,zengqiangxiaosuanganyoudexueguankuozhangzuoyong;

xinjigengsizaoqijinyong:xinjigengsizaoqiyouyanzhongdixueyahexindongguosushi,yinggaijinyong。

tebietishi:dangjijiuyishengpingguwanhuanzhedeshentiqingkuang,jianyifuyongxiaosuanganyoushi,yaozhuyi:

1、shibuguosan:danghanfu1pianxiaosuanganyouwuxiaoshi,yingge5fenzhongzaifuyici,rucizhongfu3ci,ruorengranwuxiao,jiuyingkaolvfashengxinjigengsihuoqitabingzhengdekeneng,qiebukeshanzijiadayaoliang。

2、舌下含服:舌下毛细血管很丰富,药物迅速吸收入血,1~2分钟即发生止痛作用,而吞服吸收慢,效果差。如果先嚼碎后再压在舌下含着,见效会更快些,因为嚼碎的药物更易于通过舌下黏膜迅速吸收,进入冠状动脉的时间相对短。

3、避免站立:硝酸甘油对脑血管的扩张作用比较明显,服药后会出现面色潮红、头痛,站立时出现直立性低血压而易发生昏厥。老年病人或初次服药的病人坐着服药后有头昏头痛的感觉,只要平卧休息或对症处理,很快就可恢复正常。随着服药时间的延长,这种作用逐渐减轻以至消失。

4、合理保存:硝酸甘油的物理化学性质很不稳定,要求存放在20℃以下的地方,且避光保存。另外,硝酸甘油的有效期一般为1年,如每天反复开盖取药,药物受温度、湿度和光线的影响,其有效期只有3~6个月。因此,使用硝酸甘油要注意有效期,每次取药时应快开、快盖,用后盖紧,最好3~6个月更换一次硝酸甘油。

xiaozhishi:xiaosuanganyoupksuxiaojiuxinwan

suxiaojiuxinwanyeshizhiliaoguanxinbing、xinjiaotongdeliangyao,youchuanxiong、bingpiandengzhongyaozucheng,juyouxingqihuoxue、quyuzhitongdegongxiao,kehuanjiexinjiaotong。yibanyongfayeshishexiahanfu,yici4~6li,yiri3ci;jixingfazuoshi,yici10~15li。weishubuduodelinchuangduizhaoyanjiujieguobiaoming,zaiyongyuxinjiaotongjijiushi,wulunshihuanjielinchuangzhengzhuang,haishigaishanxindiantudequexuebiaoxian,suxiaojiuxinwandeliaoxiaodoubuyayuxiaosuanganyoupian。

yibanlaishuo,zaixinjiaotongjixingfazuoshi,yingshouxuanxiaosuanganyou,yinweiqizuoyongmingqueqieqixiaokuai。danshidanghuanzhecunzaixiaosuanganyoujinjizheng、bunengnaishouxiaosuanganyou、xiaosuanganyouwuxiaoshi,keyishiyongsuxiaojiuxinwan。lingwai,youyanjiubiaoming,suxiaojiuxinwanduixueya、xinlvwuyingxianghuoyingxianghenxiao,dangyouyanzhongdixueyajixindongguosushi,kexuanyongsuxiaojiuxinwan

如何预防心肌梗死?

1、yangchengjiankangdeshenghuofangshi

buxiyan、shidangzengjiatiyuduanlian、gaishanshuimian、heliyinshi、baochijiankangdetizhong、baochixinqingfangsong,wulunshiduiyufangxinjigengsi,haishixinjigengsihoudekangfudouzhiguanzhongyao,zheixieshirenheyaowuhuozhezhiliaoshouduansuobunengtidaide。

2、dingqitijian

meiniancanjiayicitijian,lejiezijideshentizhuangkuangjiweizhongyao,youqishiduiyuzhonglaonianren。lingwai,chulechangguijiancha,keyizengjiayixiangjingdongmaichaoshengjiancha,tongguowuchuangdechaoshengkeyipanduandongmaizhouyangyinghuadejincheng。ruguofaxianjingdongmaibankuai,youduogeweixianyinsu(ruzhongniannanxing、xiyan、sangaodeng),yishengjiuhuijianyihuanzhelijiqiyongasipilinyutatingleiyaowuzhiliao。

3、yaowuyufang

xinjigengsifashenghou,xuyaozhangqifuyongkangxuexiaobanyaowu,lingwaiyexuyaozaiyishengheyaoshidezhidaoxia,xuanzefuyongyixieyaowu,ruβshoutizuzhiji、xueguanjinzhangsuzhuanhuameiyizhiji(acei)/xueguanjinzhangsuⅱshoutijiekangji(arb)、diaozhiyaowudeng,qiebukesuiyitingyao。

本文由浙江省中医院主任医师王建平进行科学性把关。

“达医晓护”供稿

(责编:刘子若、董菁)
 
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